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Stereoisomers

Stereoisomers are the type of isomers which have same molecular formula and connectivity but different arrangement of atoms in the space. These isomers are dissimilar from structural isomers, which were different in connection of atoms.

Chirality

The word chirality belongs to Greek, meaning hand. The chirality can be explained with example of hand. When we place right hand before the mirror, it can be seen left hand in the mirror. We cannot superimpose both hands because they possess chirality. A molecule which cannot be superimposed on its mirror image by any combination of rotations is called chiral molecule. A chiral carbon must have four unique substituents and the central atom show sp3 hybridization and tetrahedral geometry. chirality

Types of Stereoisomers

Stereoisomers can be classified into configurational and conformational isomers, further configurational isomers are classified into geometric an optical isomers and optical isomers are classified into enantiomers and diastereomers. Stereoisomers
Conformational Isomers
Conformational isomers are stereoisomers produced by rotation about sigma bonds and are often rapidly interconverting at room temperature.
Configurational Isomers
It is form of stereoisomerism, they do not invert convert into one another around the single bond rotation.
Geometric Isomers
Geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups with in a molecule. Such isomers contain double bonds but they can also arise from ring structures.
Optical Isomers
A type of isomerism in which isomeric compounds differ only in the direction, in which they rotate plane polarized light.
Enantiomers
Enantiomers are optical isomers which are non-superimposable mirror images to each other.
Diastereomers
Diastereomers are the type of stereoisomer which contains two or more chiral centers and not mirror images to each other.
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