The word chirality belongs to Greek, meaning hand. The chirality can be explained with example of hand. When we place right hand before the mirror, it can be seen left hand in the mirror. We cannot superimpose both hands because they possess chirality. A molecule which cannot be superimposed on its mirror image by any combination of rotations is called chiral molecule. A chiral carbon must have four unique substituents and the central atom show sp3
hybridization and tetrahedral geometry.
Types of Stereoisomers
Stereoisomers can be classified into configurational and conformational isomers, further configurational isomers are classified into geometric an optical isomers and optical isomers are classified into enantiomers and diastereomers.
Conformational isomers are stereoisomers produced by rotation about sigma bonds and are often rapidly interconverting at room temperature.
It is form of stereoisomerism, they do not invert convert into one another around the single bond rotation.
Geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups with in a molecule. Such isomers contain double bonds but they can also arise from ring structures.
A type of isomerism in which isomeric compounds differ only in the direction, in which they rotate plane polarized light.
Enantiomers are optical isomers which are non-superimposable mirror images to each other.
Diastereomers are the type of stereoisomer which contains two or more chiral centers and not mirror images to each other.